Towards real-time VMAT verification using a prototype, high-speed CMOS active pixel sensor

Zin, Hafiz M., Harris, Emma J., Osmond, John P. F. , Allinson, Nigel M. and Evans, Philip M. (2013) Towards real-time VMAT verification using a prototype, high-speed CMOS active pixel sensor. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 58 (10). pp. 3359-3375. ISSN 0031-9155

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This work investigates the feasibility of using a prototype complementary metal oxide semiconductor active pixel sensor (CMOS APS) for real-time verification of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment. The prototype CMOS APS used region of interest read out on the chip to allow fast imaging of up to 403.6 frames per second (f/s). The sensor was made larger (5.4 cm × 5.4 cm) using recent advances in photolithographic technique but retains fast imaging speed with the sensor's regional read out. There is a paradigm shift in radiotherapy treatment verification with the advent of advanced treatment techniques such as VMAT. This work has demonstrated that the APS can track multi leaf collimator (MLC) leaves moving at 18 mm s(-1) with an automatic edge tracking algorithm at accuracy better than 1.0 mm even at the fastest imaging speed. Evaluation of the measured fluence distribution for an example VMAT delivery sampled at 50.4 f/s was shown to agree well with the planned fluence distribution, with an average gamma pass rate of 96% at 3%/3 mm. The MLC leaves motion and linac pulse rate variation delivered throughout the VMAT treatment can also be measured. The results demonstrate the potential of CMOS APS technology as a real-time radiotherapy dosimeter for delivery of complex treatments such as VMAT.

Keywords:CMOS active pixel sensor, VMAT
Subjects:F Physical Sciences > F350 Medical Physics
Divisions:College of Science > School of Computer Science
ID Code:9710
Deposited On:03 Jun 2013 17:39

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