Cystine urolithiasis in a caracal (Caracal caracal)

Tordiffe, Adrian Stephen Wolferstan, van der Watt, George Frederick and Reyers, Fred (2012) Cystine urolithiasis in a caracal (Caracal caracal). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 43 (3). pp. 649-651. ISSN 1042-7260

Full content URL:

Full text not available from this repository.

Item Type:Article
Item Status:Live Archive


In July 2009, a 14-yr-old male caracal (Caracal caracal) at the National Zoological Gardens of South Africa was found, on abdominal ultrasound, to have a single large cystolith. The cystolith was removed, and the composition was determined to be 100% cystine. Blood and urine samples were also collected from three other apparently healthy caracals at the zoo and were submitted, together with the samples from the affected animal, for analysis using gas chromatograph mass spectrometry for cystine, lysine, alanine, and ornithine levels. The cystine levels in the urine, the fractional excretion of cystine, and the normalized excretion of cystine (micromol/g of creatinine) were all higher in the affected caracal than in the healthy animals. Only a single other case of cystine urolithiasis has been previously reported in any wild felid in the literature.

Keywords:Caracal, Caracal caracal, cystine, wild felid, urolithiasis, amino acid
Divisions:College of Science > School of Life Sciences
ID Code:8462
Deposited On:03 Apr 2013 10:28

Repository Staff Only: item control page