Valorization of spruce needle waste via supercritical extraction of waxes and facile isolation of nonacosan-10-ol

McElroy, C. R., Attard, T. M., Farmer, T. J. , Gaczynski, A., Thornthwaite, D., Clark, J. H. and Hunt, A. J. (2018) Valorization of spruce needle waste via supercritical extraction of waxes and facile isolation of nonacosan-10-ol. Journal of Cleaner Production, 171 . pp. 557-566. ISSN 0959-6526

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Supercritical carbon dioxide was utilized as a sustainable alternative to solvent extraction of waxes from the waste needles of two spruce species, namely Norwegian and Sitka spruce. These extracts were rich in nonacosan-10-ol, an organic compound with hydrophobic properties that lends its use in the preparation of superhydrophobic coatings. The highest crude yields were 1.7% w/w of needles obtained at 400 bar and 60 °C, while nonacosan-10-ol was selectively extracted at 200 bar and 60 °C (8070 ± 91.1 μg/g of needles). Purification of nonacosan-10-ol from the wax extracts was conducted using a simple rapid green recrystallization technique. This yielded a recovery of 44.6% ± 2% and 48.4% ± 2% of the total nonacosan-10-ol from the original crude Sitka (3600 μg/g of needles) and Norwegian wax (1920 μg/g of needles) respectively. Application of nonacosan-10-ol to a filter paper led to the formation of highly hydrophobic surfaces, with preliminary contact angles of up to 149°. This sustainable production method may develop opportunities to valorize forestry waste within a holistic biorefinery.

Keywords:Carbon dioxide, Extraction, Hydrophobicity, Needles, Refining, Separation, Surface chemistry, Waxes, Biorefineries, Hydrophobic properties, Nonacosanol, Spruce, Supercritical, Supercritical carbon dioxides, Supercritical extraction, Superhydrophobic coatings, Supercritical fluid extraction
Subjects:F Physical Sciences > F100 Chemistry
Divisions:College of Science > School of Chemistry
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ID Code:54753
Deposited On:03 Jul 2023 11:08

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