Developing an Automated Assessment of In-session Patient Activation for Psychological Therapy: Codevelopment Approach

Malins, Sam, Figueredo, Grazziela, Jilani, Tahseen , Long, Yunfei, Andrews, Jacob, Rawsthorne, Mat, Manolescu, Cosmin, Clos, Jeremie, Higton, Fred, Waldram, David, Hunt, Daniel, Perez Vallejos, Elvira and Moghaddam, Nima (2022) Developing an Automated Assessment of In-session Patient Activation for Psychological Therapy: Codevelopment Approach. JMIR Medical Informatics, 10 (11). e38168. ISSN 2291-9694

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Developing an Automated Assessment of In-session Patient Activation for Psychological Therapy: Codevelopment Approach
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Patient activation is defined as a patient’s confidence and perceived ability to manage their own health. Patient activation has been a consistent predictor of long-term health and care costs, particularly for people with multiple long-term health conditions. However, there is currently no means of measuring patient activation from what is said in health care consultations. This may be particularly important for psychological therapy because most current methods for evaluating therapy content cannot be used routinely due to time and cost restraints. Natural language processing (NLP) has been used increasingly to classify and evaluate the contents of psychological therapy. This aims to make the routine, systematic evaluation of psychological therapy contents more accessible in terms of time and cost restraints. However, comparatively little attention has been paid to algorithmic trust and interpretability, with few studies in the field involving end users or stakeholders in algorithm development.

This study applied a responsible design to use NLP in the development of an artificial intelligence model to automate the ratings assigned by a psychological therapy process measure: the consultation interactions coding scheme (CICS). The CICS assesses the level of patient activation observable from turn-by-turn psychological therapy interactions.

With consent, 128 sessions of remotely delivered cognitive behavioral therapy from 53 participants experiencing multiple physical and mental health problems were anonymously transcribed and rated by trained human CICS coders. Using participatory methodology, a multidisciplinary team proposed candidate language features that they thought would discriminate between high and low patient activation. The team included service-user researchers, psychological therapists, applied linguists, digital research experts, artificial intelligence ethics researchers, and NLP researchers. Identified language features were extracted from the transcripts alongside demographic features, and machine learning was applied using k-nearest neighbors and bagged trees algorithms to assess whether in-session patient activation and interaction types could be accurately classified.

The k-nearest neighbors classifier obtained 73% accuracy (82% precision and 80% recall) in a test data set. The bagged trees classifier obtained 81% accuracy for test data (87% precision and 75% recall) in differentiating between interactions rated high in patient activation and those rated low or neutral.

Coproduced language features identified through a multidisciplinary collaboration can be used to discriminate among psychological therapy session contents based on patient activation among patients experiencing multiple long-term physical and mental health conditions.

Keywords:machine learning, Responsible research and innovation, artificial intelligence, cognitive behavioural therapy, Natural Language Processing
Subjects:G Mathematical and Computer Sciences > G400 Computer Science
C Biological Sciences > C840 Clinical Psychology
Divisions:College of Social Science > School of Psychology
ID Code:52466
Deposited On:22 Nov 2022 11:05

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