Order effects and multi-city visits: tour guides’ perspectives

Zare, Samira and Pearce, Philip (2018) Order effects and multi-city visits: tour guides’ perspectives. International Journal of Tourism Cities, 4 (2). ISSN 2056-5607

Full content URL: https://doi.org/10.1108/IJTC-08-2017-0042

Order effects and multi-city visits
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Item Type:Article
Item Status:Live Archive


The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of the order in which a set of cities are visited to ascertain the effects of position on group tourists’ recall and evaluations.

Using a questionnaire, the views of highly experienced tour guides were analysed to provide preliminary insights about the likely occurrence of position effects. The topic was studied in Iran where a natural variation in the order of visiting cities on guided tours exists.

Credible and consistent evidence was found for the perceived effects of recency when considering tourists’ recall and evaluations. In particular, the influence was seen as clearly enhancing the recall and positive evaluation for the most high profile cities in the set of visited locations.

Research limitations/implications
Replications of the position effect in other countries and for other kinds of tourism cities needs to be pursued, desirably by direct assessments of tourist’ views to buttress the present views held by guides.

Practical implications
Designing itineraries by making imaginative use of the effects of order on the tourists’ sequence of city visits should facilitate the memorability of destinations for tourists and benefit businesses.

Empirical evidence about order effects in multi-city tour itineraries has never been established. The study provides foundation evidence for such influences through a non-reactive and naturalistic assessment by tour guides who are in contact with varied itineraries and who regularly consider the experiences of diverse and large numbers of tourists.

Keywords:Tour guide, City evaluation, City recall, Iranian cities, Position effects, Recency effects
Subjects:N Business and Administrative studies > N800 Tourism, Transport and Travel
Divisions:Lincoln International Business School
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ID Code:50107
Deposited On:11 Jul 2022 09:05

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