Temporally consistent predominance and distribution of secondary malaria vectors in the Anopheles community of the upper Zambezi floodplain.

Cross, DE, Healey, AJE, McKeown, NJ , Thomas, CJ, Macarie, NA, Siaziyu, V, Singini, D, Liywalii, F, Sakala, J, Silumesii, A and Shaw, PW (2022) Temporally consistent predominance and distribution of secondary malaria vectors in the Anopheles community of the upper Zambezi floodplain. Scientific Reports, 12 . p. 240. ISSN 2045-2322

Full content URL: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-04314-4

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Temporally consistent predominance and distribution of secondary malaria vectors in the Anopheles community of the upper Zambezi floodplain.
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Abstract

Regional optimisation of malaria vector control approaches requires detailed understanding both of the species composition of Anopheles mosquito communities, and how they vary over spatial and temporal scales. Knowledge of vector community dynamics is particularly important in settings where ecohydrological conditions fluctuate seasonally and inter-annually, such as the Barotse floodplain of the upper Zambezi river. DNA barcoding of anopheline larvae sampled in the 2019 wet season revealed the predominance of secondary vector species, with An. coustani comprising > 80% of sampled larvae and distributed ubiquitously across all ecological zones. Extensive larval sampling, plus a smaller survey of adult mosquitoes, identified geographic clusters of primary vectors, but represented only 2% of anopheline larvae. Comparisons with larval surveys in 2017/2018 and a contemporaneous independent 5-year dataset from adult trapping corroborated this paucity of primary vectors across years, and the consistent numerical dominance of An. coustani and other secondary vectors in both dry and wet seasons, despite substantial inter-annual variation in hydrological conditions. This marked temporal consistency of spatial distribution and anopheline community composition presents an opportunity to target predominant secondary vectors outdoors. Larval source management should be considered, alongside prevalent indoor-based approaches, amongst a diversification of vector control approaches to more effectively combat residual malaria transmission.

Keywords:malaria, vectors, hydrology, Sub-Saharan Africa
Subjects:F Physical Sciences > F890 Geographical and Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified
C Biological Sciences > C180 Ecology
Divisions:College of Science > School of Geography
ID Code:48962
Deposited On:21 Apr 2022 13:28

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