The Flow-Clutch Scale: Development and Preliminary Validation in Sport and Exercise

Swann, Christian, Driscoll, Janelle, Goddard, Scott , Willis, Royce, Schweickle, Matthew, Araujo Fernandes Ribeiro, Ingrid, Gatt, Matthew, Jackman, Patricia and Vella, Stewart (2022) The Flow-Clutch Scale: Development and Preliminary Validation in Sport and Exercise. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 58 . p. 102066. ISSN 1469-0292

Full content URL: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2021.102066

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The Flow-Clutch Scale: Development and Preliminary Validation in Sport and Exercise
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Abstract

Objectives: The Integrated Model of Flow and Clutch States describes two overlapping psychological states that underlie exceptional performance and rewarding exercise experiences. However, research based on this model is currently hampered because no validated measure has yet been developed. Therefore, the aim of this multi-study paper was to develop and provide preliminary validation for the Flow-Clutch Scale in sport and exercise.
Design: Using two independent adult samples (n = 280; n = 264), three studies were conducted to develop and establish preliminary validity for the Flow-Clutch Scale.
Method: In Study 1, we developed an initial version of the scale and established content validity using an expert panel. In Study 2, we employed exploratory factor analysis to: identify the most appropriate factor structure; examine the scale’s internal consistency; test whether the scale differentiated between individuals who experience flow, clutch, or neither state; and examine relationships with the Flow State Scale-2. In Study 3, we aimed to replicate findings of Study 2 with an independent sample, and employed confirmatory factor analysis to confirm the factor structure, internal consistency, and relationships with the Flow State Scale-2.
Results: The results provide preliminary validation of the 4-factor, 22-item Flow-Clutch Scale.
Conclusions: These studies indicate the Flow-Clutch Scale represents a useful scale for researchers interested in examining flow and/or clutch states in sport and exercise. Recommendations are provided for further research to continue testing, and accumulating evidence for, the validity and reliability of the Flow-Clutch Scale.

Keywords:optimal experience, performance, questionnaire, scale development
Subjects:C Biological Sciences > C600 Sports Science
C Biological Sciences > C800 Psychology
C Biological Sciences > C850 Cognitive Psychology
C Biological Sciences > C890 Psychology not elsewhere classified
Divisions:College of Social Science > School of Sport and Exercise Science
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ID Code:47132
Deposited On:08 Nov 2021 16:40

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