Standardisation of UK Electric Vehicle Charging Protocol, Payment and Charge Point Connection

Chamberlain, Keith and Al-Majeed, Salah (2021) Standardisation of UK Electric Vehicle Charging Protocol, Payment and Charge Point Connection. World Electric Vehicle Journal, 12 (2). p. 63. ISSN 2032-6653

Full content URL: https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12020063

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Standardisation of UK Electric Vehicle Charging Protocol, Payment and Charge Point Connection
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Abstract

Standardisation is fundamental to ensuring that new technologies develop and grow unhindered by manufacturer-led standards. Dismissing this vital issue can have a detrimental effect on society regarding adopting new technologies, particularly when government targets and regulations are crucial for their success. We have witnessed competing global industries struggle for dominance, such as Betamax versus VHS, where each had a similar user outcome, but the confusion of differing formats slowed growth. We analyse emerging standards for electric vehicle rapid charging and investigate how standardisation challenges affect stakeholders by reviewing the existing literature on single-mode and polymodal harmonisation. By assimilating existing evidence, we then develop a new understanding of the science behind multi-model standardisation (MMS) approaches. Our literature review reveals three primary standardisation issues: (1) charge connections, (2) car to charger communication protocols, and (3) charge payment methods. We then analyse each mode type’s benefit, observing how each example contributes to the overall outcome, and suggest that their impact depends on car to charger handshake timing and intuitive user interaction. Using a structured survey of 282 respondents, we analyse end-user satisfaction for factors affecting growth in the EV sector and compare these findings with the factors identified during our literature review. We consequently articulate a programme for future research to understand EV rapid charger standardisation better, proposing recommendations for vested stakeholders that embrace sponsors in societal, technological and scientific transformation.

Keywords:battery-powered electric vehicle, EV charging infrastructure, electric vehicle growth, battery-backed electric vehicle charging, charge point anxiety, wireless EV charging, inductive EV charging
Subjects:G Mathematical and Computer Sciences > G400 Computer Science
Divisions:College of Science > School of Computer Science
ID Code:46665
Deposited On:24 Sep 2021 14:00

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