The Assessment of Effects of Memory Strategies on a Sample of Intermediate School Adolescents in KSA

Alyami, Ibrahim (2020) The Assessment of Effects of Memory Strategies on a Sample of Intermediate School Adolescents in KSA. PhD thesis, University of Lincoln.

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This thesis is focused on assessing the impact of memory strategies among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. A mixed-methods approach has been used to analyse the impact of memory strategies among the sample of intermediate schools, adolescents, and undergradua
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Abstract

This thesis is focused on assessing the impact of memory strategies among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. A mixed-methods approach has been used to analyse the impact of memory strategies among the sample of intermediate schools, adolescents, and undergraduate students in KSA. Four types of memory strategies, namely, self-test, mental practice, written rehearsal, and practice aloud, were used in this research. This research evaluated the impact of memory strategy on different age-groups of adolescents starting from 14-17 years. A total number of four studies were conducted for the purpose of attaining the aim and objectives of this thesis.

The aim of the first study was to identify the types of memory strategies that are used by adolescents and the identification of any interrelationship between student grades and the types of memory strategies used. For this purpose, a survey was conducted with 175 adolescents from the third grade of middle schools in Gizan, Saudi Arabia. A simple linear regression analysis was used in this study to predict adolescents‘ feelings of success after the use of different memory strategies. This was executed by analysing their scores associated with different subjects, including English, Arabic, Quran, and Science. The study findings indicated that the four common memory strategies used by adolescents studying in Saudi schools included self-test, rehearsal, practising, and mental practice. It was further identified that these strategies helped them in recalling information and boosting learning skills, which was reflected through their good scores in subjects like English

The second study is aimed at gaining insight into the views of teachers in Saudi Arabian middle schools. It was based on the significance of memory strategies in boosting student learning. In this study, an interview was conducted with 18 teachers teaching various subjects, including Quran, Arabic Language, Science, Maths, and English Language. It was revealed from the findings that teachers of intermediate schools in KSA prefer to motivate adolescents to adopt memory strategies like a rehearsal, mental practice and self-test. This was because they perceived memory strategies as an effective means of developing the learning capabilities of adolescents for different subjects where the use of memorising was necessary to succeed or excel.

The aim of the third study was to pilot the methodologies for study four so that validity of the research method and instruments can be checked and to identify the effectiveness of memory strategies for 42 Saudi Arabian undergraduate students at the University of Lincoln, with an average age of 19.45 years. The data collected in this study through interviews were analysed with the help of content analysis, and data from a survey was analysed through statistical analysis. It was identified from the study that students who utilised memory strategies were able to succeed in regard to learning and recalling new words. The study findings also revealed that there was a significant difference in the scores of the students after providing them with memory training. It was also identified that mean scores of students in recalling a word was significantly higher for the self-test as compared to other memory strategies such as the rehearsal, practice aloud, and mental practice. Furthermore, it was also identified that memory strategies helped students in enhancing their background knowledge, motivation, engagement, and memorising, which in turn assisted them in quickly recalling the content taught by the teachers.

The fourth study in this research was a full-scale study, which was aimed at analysing the importance of memory strategies with regard to a sample of 120 adolescents selected from third-graders at intermediate schools in the KSA, within an age range of 14-17 years. The study comprised 120 adolescents, including 77 boys and 43 girls, both in control groups and intervention groups. The participants were given a list of words to memorise using a particular memory strategy. Further, a memory test was conducted, wherein participants were given a specified time to recall a word, which had been learnt using four different types of memory strategy, including self-test, mental practice, practice aloud, and written rehearsal. In order to test the memory, participants were given 1 point for a correctly recalled word and 0 points for wrongly remembered words.

In conclusion, a mixed-methods approach was used as a means of accomplishing the aim and objectives of each study, and survey and interview methods were employed as a data collection tool. Overall the study findings depicted that memory strategy significantly influence the behaviour of adolescents, but do not affect the memory behaviour of undergraduate students. The adolescents have already formed their memory behaviour; thus, the memory strategies are not effective for them. Findings of the studies have reflected that there is a difference in memory strategies when students report the memory strategies they use in their school life and the teachers‘ report on adolescents‘ behaviour, but there are no differences observed in the memory performance when students received training in different memory strategies.

Divisions:College of Social Science > School of Psychology
ID Code:44787
Deposited On:05 May 2021 10:13

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