A Systematic Review of Flow Interventions in Sport and Exercise

Goddard, Scott, Stevens, Chris, Jackman, Patricia and Swann, Christian (2021) A Systematic Review of Flow Interventions in Sport and Exercise. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology . ISSN 1750-984X

Full content URL: https://doi.org/10.1080/1750984X.2021.1923055

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A Systematic Review of Flow Interventions in Sport and Exercise
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Abstract

Flow is an optimal psychological state associated with exceptional performances and positive subjective experiences in sport and exercise. Considering these reported benefits, there have been many attempts to promote flow experiences through interventions. However, there is little evidence to demonstrate the effectiveness of flow interventions in sport and exercise. This study aimed to systematically review, synthesise, and evaluate the efficacy of flow interventions in sport and exercise to date. Twenty-nine empirical studies, published before August 2020 were identified, primarily comprising single-case designs (41.38%) and quasi-experimental designs
(34.48%). Strategies most commonly reported in flow interventions to date included: mindfulness (30.03%); hypnosis (17.24%); and imagery (13.79%). While there is evidence that interventions increased certain dimensions of flow, no studies to date have reported conclusive evidence that flow was induced through an intervention. None of the included studies were developed through an intervention development framework, and the strategies employed were generally only partially related to a conceptual framework of flow. Collectively, these findings suggest interventions reported to date have largely been unsuccessful at producing flow experiences. The conceptual, developmental, and methodological issues impacting the quality of flow interventions are discussed, and recommendations are made to improve the efficacy of flow interventions in future.

Keywords:athlete, exerciser, performance, positive psychology;, optimal experience
Subjects:C Biological Sciences > C800 Psychology
C Biological Sciences > C850 Cognitive Psychology
C Biological Sciences > C890 Psychology not elsewhere classified
Divisions:College of Social Science > School of Sport and Exercise Science
ID Code:44544
Deposited On:09 Apr 2021 11:07

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