Simulating the thermal behavior in Lake Ontario using EFDC

Arifin, R. R., James, S. C., de Alwis Pitts, D. A. , Hamlet, A. F., Sharma, A. and Fernando, H. J. S. (2016) Simulating the thermal behavior in Lake Ontario using EFDC. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 42 (3). pp. 511-523. ISSN 0380-1330


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The thermal behavior of Lake Ontario (spring warming, thermal bar formation, and summer stratification) is simulated using the three-dimensional thermo-hydrodynamic model, Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC). The model is forced with hourly meteorological data from weather stations around the lake and flow data from Niagara and St. Lawrence Rivers. The simulation is performed from April to July 2011 on a curvilinear grid, with cells approximately 2 2 km2 and bathymetry interpolated onto the grid. We implement model improvements by (a) updating the evaporation algorithm to ensure accurate simulation of evaporation rates and latent heat fluxes and (b) specifying appropriate solar radiation attenuation coefficients to ensure sufficient absorption of incoming solar radiation by the water column. The study also calibrated horizontal and vertical mixing coefficients. Results show that the model accurately simulated the overall surface temperature profiles with RMSEs between 1 and 2 °C and the vertical temperature profiles during the lake mixed phase with RMSEs <0.5 °C. Overall, the modified EFDC model successfully replicated thermal bar evolution. © 2016 International Association for Great Lakes Research.

Keywords:Atmospheric movements, Atmospheric temperature, Evaporation, Fluid dynamics, Meteorology, Mixing, Solar radiation, Temperature control, Water absorption, EFDC, Lake Ontario, Thermal bars, Thermal mixing, Water temperatures, Lakes, algorithm, bathymetry, latent heat flux, numerical model, simulation, stratification, surface temperature, temperature profile, vertical mixing, water column, water temperature, Great Lakes North America, Niagara River, Saint Lawrence River
Subjects:H Engineering > H141 Fluid Mechanics
G Mathematical and Computer Sciences > G150 Mathematical Modelling
H Engineering > H200 Civil Engineering
Divisions:College of Science > School of Geography
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ID Code:29401
Deposited On:24 Nov 2017 13:46

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