New and improved diagnostics for detection of drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis

O'Grady, Justin, Maeurer, Markus, Mwaba, Peter , Kapata, Nathan, Bates, Matthew, Hoelscher, Michael and Zumla, Alimuddin (2011) New and improved diagnostics for detection of drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis. CURRENT OPINION IN PULMONARY MEDICINE, 17 (3). pp. 134-141. ISSN 1070-5287

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Purpose of review Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global emergency and continues to kill 1.7 million people globally each year. Drug-resistant TB is now well established throughout the world and most TB patients are not being screened for drug resistance due to lack of laboratory resources and rapid accurate point-of-care tests. Accurate and rapid diagnosis of TB and drug-resistant TB is of paramount importance in establishing appropriate clinical management and infection control measures. During the past decade, there have been significant advances in diagnostic technologies for TB and drug-resistant TB. The purpose of this article is to review the current data, recommendations and evidence base for these tests. Recent findings Second-line drug susceptibility testing (DST) is complex and expensive. Automated liquid culture systems and molecular line probe assays are recommended by the WHO as the current `gold standard' for first-line DST. Liquid culture DST for aminoglycosides, polypeptides and fluoroquinolones has been shown to have relatively good reliability and reproducibility for diagnosis of extensively drug-resistant TB; however, DST for other second-line drugs (ethionamide, prothionamide, cycloserine, terizidone, para-aminosalicylic acid, clofazimine, amoxicillin-clavulanate, clarithromycin, linezolid) is not recommended. Automated liquid culture systems are currently recommended by the WHO as the `gold standard' for second-line DST. Summary In this review, we describe the phenotypic and genotypic methods currently available for the diagnosis of TB and drug-resistant forms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and discuss future prospects for TB diagnostics. Current technologies for the detection of drug resistant M. tuberculosis vary greatly in terms of turnaround time, cost and complexity. Ultimately, the `holy grail' diagnostic for TB must fulfil all technical specifications for a good point-of-care test, screen for drug resistance concurrently and be adaptable to the various health system levels and to countries with diverse economic status and TB burden.

Additional Information:The final published version of this article can be accessed online at
Keywords:diagnostic, drug-resistant tuberculosis, review, tuberculosis}
Subjects:A Medicine and Dentistry > A300 Clinical Medicine
Divisions:College of Science > School of Life Sciences
ID Code:28403
Deposited On:23 Aug 2018 10:39

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