Associations of anti-GAD antibodies with islet cell antibodies and insulin autoantibodies in first-degree relatives of type I diabetic patients

Roll, U., Christie, M. R., Standl, E. and Ziegler, A.-G. (1994) Associations of anti-GAD antibodies with islet cell antibodies and insulin autoantibodies in first-degree relatives of type I diabetic patients. Diabetes, 43 (1). pp. 154-160. ISSN 0012-1797

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Item Type:Article
Item Status:Live Archive


Sera from 114 first-degree relatives of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type I diabetes) patients and 81 healthy individuals living in Germany were analyzed for antibodies to rat brain glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD-ab) using an immunoprecipitation assay. The determination of GAD-ab in the 81 islet cell antibody (ICA) and insulin autoantibody (IAA) negative healthy individuals established a normal range (mean ± 2 SD); 2 healthy individuals (2.5) possessed GAD-ab levels above this range, but became negative on follow-up. None of 86 ICA-/IAA- first-degree relatives had GAD-ab; whereas, 42.9 of 28 ICA+ and/or IAA+ relatives were positive for GAD-ab. Presence of GAD-ab was negatively correlated with IAA (P = 0.02) and positively with ICA (P = 0.0006). Follow-up samples were obtained from 25 of 28 ICA+ and/or IAA+ relatives with a mean (± SD) follow-up period of 20.6 ± 12.1 months. In these 25 relatives, GAD-ab were positive in 70 ICA+/IAA-, 0 ICA-/IAA+, and 57.1 ICA+/IAA+ relatives in the first sample and in 57.1 ICA+/IAA-, 0 ICA-/IAA+, and 70 ICA+/IAA+ relatives in the last sample. GAD-ab, once detected, persisted in 9 of 11 GAD-ab+ relatives. Of the relatives, 2 converted to GAD-positivity, concomitant with the appearance of ICA, and 2 others lost GAD-ab during follow-up. Of the 28 ICA+ and/or IAA+ relatives, 6 progressed to overt type I diabetes on follow-up, and GAD-ab were detectable in 4 of these relatives. In conclusion, this study indicates that GAD-ab in first-degree relatives are significantly correlated with ICA, are independent of the appearance of IAA, and are present in 66.7 of relatives who subsequently developed type I diabetes.

Keywords:brain enzyme, enzyme antibody, glutamate decarboxylase, insulin antibody, pancreas islet cell antibody, adolescent, adult, antibody blood level, antibody detection, article, child, controlled study, disease association, female, human, insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, major clinical study, male, priority journal, relative, Adolescent, Aging, Animal, Antibodies, Autoantibodies, Brain, Child, Preschool, Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent, Follow-Up Studies, Glucose Tolerance Test, Islets of Langerhans, Middle Age, Nuclear Family, Rats, Rats, Wistar, Reference Values, Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Subjects:A Medicine and Dentistry > A100 Pre-clinical Medicine
Divisions:College of Science > School of Life Sciences
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ID Code:18161
Deposited On:31 Jul 2015 14:10

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