Warfare as remedy: how the Independent framed the first US assault on Fallujah

Zollmann, Florian (2008) Warfare as remedy: how the Independent framed the first US assault on Fallujah. Occasional Working Paper Series, 1 (1). ISSN 1758-1818

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The paper discusses coverage of the first US assault on the Iraqi city of Fallujah in April 2004 on the basis of selected articles from the British newspaper the Independent. It incorporates a discourse analysis of 100 articles relating to the preparations of the assault, the initial attack and its outcomes between 01/04-30/04/2004.

It will be highlighted in the paper, how the initial assault was framed by the Independent and how civilian casualties, the destruction of civilian infrastructure, as well as violations of international law were represented. Crucial questions were: How did the Independent frame the US assault on Fallujah? How did the Independent represent civilian casualties? And, how did the newspaper cover the assault in relation to the Geneva Conventions and international law?

The paper will rely on a model proposed by Entman (2004) to explain the framing strategies of the Independent. As will be argued in this paper, the Independent's framing led to the exclusion of other possible remedies which were not proposed. Moreover, crucial historical details about the development of the resistance in Fallujah, which was arguably a legitimate movement that resisted an illegitimate foreign occupation, remained unexplained. Furthermore, some crucial questions were not seriously discussed in the Independent's coverage about the assault on Fallujah. These concerned the legality of the attack, under international law, and violations of international humanitarian law which were reported by numerous independent observers and relief organisation.

Keywords:Iraq, Warfare, Framing, Civilian Casualties, International Law
Subjects:X Education > X342 Academic studies in Higher Education
Divisions:College of Social Science > School of Education
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ID Code:16189
Deposited On:04 Dec 2014 11:02

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