The Impact of Delayed Switch to Second-Line Antiretroviral Therapy on Mortality, Depending on Definition of Failure Time and CD4 Count at Failure

Schomaker, Michael, Davies, Mary-Ann, Tanser, Frank , Wood, Robin, Prozesky, Hans, Boulle, Andrew, Fox, Matthew P and Bell-Gorrod, Helen (2020) The Impact of Delayed Switch to Second-Line Antiretroviral Therapy on Mortality, Depending on Definition of Failure Time and CD4 Count at Failure. American Journal of Epidemiology, 189 (8). pp. 811-819. ISSN 0002-9262

Full content URL: https://doi.org/10.1093/aje%2Fkwaa049

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The Impact of Delayed Switch to Second-Line Antiretroviral Therapy on Mortality, Depending on Definition of Failure Time and CD4 Count at Failure
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Abstract

Little is known about the functional relationship of delaying second-line treatment initiation for human immunodeficiency virus–positive patients and mortality, given a patient’s immune status. We included 7,255 patients starting antiretroviral therapy during 2004–2017, from 9 South African cohorts, with virological failure and complete baseline data. We estimated the impact of switch time on the hazard of death using inverse probability of treatment weighting of marginal structural models. The nonlinear relationship between month of switch and the 5-year survival probability, stratified by CD4 count at failure, was estimated with targeted maximum likelihood estimation. We adjusted for measured time-varying confounding by CD4 count, viral load, and visit frequency. Five-year mortality was estimated to be 10.5% (95% CI: 2.2, 18.8) for immediate switch and to be 26.6% (95% CI: 20.9, 32.3) for no switch (51.1% if CD4 count was <100 cells/mm3). The hazard of death was estimated to be 0.37 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.46) times lower if everyone had been switched immediately compared with never. The shorter the delay in switching, the lower the hazard of death—delaying 30–59 days reduced the hazard by 0.53 (95% CI: 0.43, 0.65) times and 60–119 days by 0.58 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.69) times, compared with no switch. Early treatment switch is particularly important for patients with low CD4 counts at failure.

Keywords:causal inference, HIV, second-line ART, targeted learning, treatment switching
Subjects:B Subjects allied to Medicine > B990 Subjects Allied to Medicine not elsewhere classified
Divisions:College of Social Science
ID Code:41624
Deposited On:10 Sep 2020 15:44

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