The effects of goal types on psychological outcomes in active and insufficiently active adults in a walking task

Hawkins, Rebecca, Crust, Lee, Swann, Christian and Jackman, Patricia (2020) The effects of goal types on psychological outcomes in active and insufficiently active adults in a walking task. Psychology of Sport and Exercise . ISSN 1469-0292

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The effects of goal types on psychological outcomes in active and insufficiently active adults in a walking task
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Abstract

Objectives: This study aimed to extend recent work on the effects of goal types in physical activity (PA; Swann et al., 2019) by comparing the effects of SMART, open, and do-your-best (DYB) goals on performance and psychological responses in active and insufficiently active adults in a walking task.
Design: 4 (goal condition) x 3 (attempt) x 2 (group) mixed design.
Methods: Active (n = 18) and insufficiently active (n = 18) participants completed baseline and two experimental attempts of a 6-minute walking test in four conditions: SMART goal; open goal; DYB goal; and control. A range of measures were taken during and following each attempt, and after each session. A series of mixed ANOVA’s were conducted for all measures assessed between groups.
Results: Insufficiently active participants achieved greater distances in the open condition compared to the SMART condition (p < .001), whereas active participants achieved greater distances in the SMART condition compared to the open condition (p < .001). Additionally, exploratory analyses revealed that insufficiently active participants reported greater pleasure and enjoyment (p < .05) in the open condition compared to active participants, who conversely reported more pleasure and enjoyment (p < .05) in the SMART condition than insufficiently active participants.
Conclusions: Findings provide initial evidence that PA and psychological responses differ between active and insufficiently active individuals depending on goal type. This work has potential implications for goal setting strategies in PA promotion and raises further questions about current practices of setting SMART goals for insufficiently active participants.

Keywords:affect; behaviour change; enjoyment; exercise; goal setting; physical activity.
Subjects:C Biological Sciences > C600 Sports Science
Divisions:College of Social Science > School of Sport and Exercise Science
ID Code:39891
Deposited On:23 Jan 2020 15:23

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