Predictors of effective management of acute pain in children within a UK ambulance service: a cross-sectional study

Whitley, Gregory, Hemingway, Pippa, Law, Graham , Wilson, Caitlin and Siriwardena, Niro (2020) Predictors of effective management of acute pain in children within a UK ambulance service: a cross-sectional study. American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 38 (7). pp. 1424-1430. ISSN 0735-6757

Full content URL: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2019.11.043

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Abstract

Objective: We aimed to identify predictors of effective management of acute pain in children in the pre-hospital setting.

Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study using electronic clinical records from one large UK ambulance service during 01-Oct-2017 to 30-Sep-2018 was performed using multivariable logistic regression. We included all children <18 years suffering acute pain. Children with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of <15, no documented pain or without a second pain score were excluded. The outcome measure was effective pain management (abolition or reduction of pain by ≥2 out of 10 using the numeric pain rating scale, Wong & Baker faces scale or FLACC [face, legs, activity, crying and consolability] scale).

Results: 2312 patients were included for analysis. Median (IQR) age was 13 (9-16), 54% were male and the cause of pain was trauma in 65% of cases. Predictors of effective pain management include children who were younger (0-5 years) compared to older (12-17 years) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-1.97), administered analgesia (AOR 2.26; CI 1.87-2.73), attended by a paramedic (AOR 1.40; CI 1.15-1.71) or living in an area of low deprivation (index of multiple deprivation [IMD] 8-10) compared to children in an area of high deprivation (IMD 1-3) (AOR 1.24; CI 1.01-1.53). Child sex, type of pain, transport time, non-pharmacological treatments and clinician experience were not significant.

Conclusion: These predictors highlight disparity in effective pre-hospital management of acute pain in children. Qualitative research is needed to help explain these findings.

Keywords:emergency medical services, Ambulances, Infant, Child, Adolescent, Pain
Subjects:B Subjects allied to Medicine > B990 Subjects Allied to Medicine not elsewhere classified
Divisions:College of Social Science > School of Health & Social Care
ID Code:39009
Deposited On:02 Dec 2019 12:23

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