Incidence of bloodstream infections, length of hospital stay and survival in patients with recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection treated with fecal microbiota transplantation or antibiotics: a prospective cohort study

Ianiro, Gianluca, Murri, Rita, Sciumè, Giusi Desirè, Impagnatiello, Michele, Masucci, Luca, Ford, Alexander C., Law, Graham, Tilg, Herbert, Sanguinetti, Maurizio, Cauda, Roberto, Gasbarrini, Antonio, Fantoni, Massimo and Cammarota, Giovanni (2019) Incidence of bloodstream infections, length of hospital stay and survival in patients with recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection treated with fecal microbiota transplantation or antibiotics: a prospective cohort study. Annals of Internal Medicine, 171 (10). ISSN 0003-4819

Full content URL: https://doi.org/10.7326/M18-3635

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Incidence of bloodstream infections, length of hospital stay and survival in patients with recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection treated with fecal microbiota transplantation or antibiotics: a prospective cohort study
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Abstract

Background: Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is a risk factor for bloodstream infections (BSI). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is more effective than antibiotics in treating recurrent CDI, but its efficacy in preventing CDI-related BSI is uncertain.
Objective: To assess incidence of primary BSI in patients with recurrent CDI treated with FMT compared with patients treated with antibiotics.
Design: Prospective cohort study. FMT and antibiotic treated patients were matched using propensity score.
Setting: Single academic medical center.
Patients: 290 inpatients with recurrent CDI; 57 patients per treatment in matched cohort.
Interventions: FMT or antibiotics.
Measurements: Our primary outcome was the development of primary BSI within a 90-day follow-up. Secondary outcomes were length of hospitalization, and overall survival (OS) at 90 days.
Results: 109 patients were treated with FMT, and 181 received antibiotics. Five patients in the FMT group and 40 in the antibiotic group developed BSI. Due to differences in the patients treated with FMT and antibiotics in a number of baseline characteristics including the number of recurrences and CDI severity, comparative analyses were limited to the matched cohort. Subjects in the FMT group experienced a 23% lower risk of developing BSI (95% confidence interval 10-35%), 14 fewer days of hospitalization (95% confidence interval 9-20 days), and a 32% increase in OS (95% confidence interval 16-47%) compared with the antibiotic group.
Limitations: Non-randomized study with potential for unmeasured/residual confounding. Limited generalizability of the propensity score-matched cohort.
Conclusion: In a propensity score-matched cohort, patients with recurrent CDI treated with FMT were less likely to develop primary BSI.

Keywords:microbiome
Subjects:A Medicine and Dentistry > A300 Clinical Medicine
Divisions:College of Social Science > School of Health & Social Care
ID Code:37885
Deposited On:08 Nov 2019 09:23

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