Human cytomegalovirus infant infection adversely affects growth and development in maternally HIV-exposed and unexposed infants in Zambia

Gompels, U. A., Larke, N., Sanz-Ramos, M., Bates, M., Musonda, K., Manno, D., Siame, J., Monze, M. and Filteau, S. (2012) Human cytomegalovirus infant infection adversely affects growth and development in maternally HIV-exposed and unexposed infants in Zambia. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 54 (3). pp. 434-442. ISSN 1058-4838

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Abstract

Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) coinfections have been shown to increase infant morbidity, mortality, and AIDS progression. In HIV-endemic regions, maternal HIV-exposed but HIV-uninfected infants, which is the majority of children affected by HIV, also show poor growth and increased morbidity. Although nutrition has been examined, the effects of HCMV infection have not been evaluated. We studied the effects of HCMV infection on the growth, development, and health of maternally HIV-exposed and unexposed infants in Zambia. Methods. Infants were examined in a cohort recruited to a trial of micronutrient-fortified complementary foods. HIV-infected mothers and infants had received perinatal antiretroviral therapy to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission. Growth, development, and morbidity were analyzed by linear regression analyses in relation to maternal HIV exposure and HCMV infection, as screened by sera DNA for viremia at 6 months of age and by antibody for infection at 18 months. Results. All HCMV-seropositive infants had decreased length-for-age by 18 months compared with seronegative infants (standard deviation z]-score difference: -0.44 95% confidence interval {CI}, -.72 to -.17]; P = .002). In HIV-exposed infants, those who were HCMV positive compared with those who were negative, also had reduced head size (mean z-score difference: 20.72 95% CI, -1.23 to -.22]; P = .01) and lower psychomotor development (Bayley test score difference: -4.1 95% CI, -7.8 to -.5]; P = .03). HIV-exposed, HCMV-viremic infants were more commonly referred for hospital treatment than HCMV-negative infants. The effects of HCMV were unaffected by micronutrient fortification. Conclusion. HCMV affects child growth, development, and morbidity of African infants, particularly in those maternally exposed to HIV. HCMV is therefore a risk factor for child health in this region.

Keywords:CMV, Cytomegalovirus, HIV, Children, HIv exposed, nutrition, malnutrition, HCMV
Subjects:A Medicine and Dentistry > A300 Clinical Medicine
Divisions:College of Science > School of Life Sciences
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ID Code:28399
Deposited On:16 Mar 2018 16:35

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