Characterisation of regional variations in a stitched CMOS active pixel sensor

Zin, Hafiz M. and Konstantinidis, Anastasios C. and Harrs, Emma J. and Osmond, John P.F. and Olivo, Alesandro and Bohndiek, Sarah E. and Clark, Andy T. and Turchetta, Renato and Guerrini, Nicola and Crooks, Jamie and Allinson, Nigel and Speller, Robert and Evans, Philip M. (2010) Characterisation of regional variations in a stitched CMOS active pixel sensor. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 620 (2-3). pp. 540-548. ISSN 0168-9002

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Abstract

Stitched, large area, complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS), active pixel sensors (APS) show promises for X-ray imaging applications. In this paper we present an investigation of the effects of stitching on uniformity of sensor response for an experimental APS. The sensor, known as LAS (large area sensor), was made by reticular stitching onto a single silicon wafer of a 5x5 array of regions consisting of 270x270 pixels with 40 μm pixel pitch, to yield 1350x1350 pixels and an imaging area of 54x54 mm. Data acquired from two different sensors of the same type were filtered to remove spiking pixels and electromagnetic interference (EMI). The non-linear compensation (NLC) technique for CMOS sensor analysis was used to determine the variation in gain, read noise, full well capacity and dynamic range between stitched regions. Variations across stitched regions were analysed using profiles, analysis of pixel variations at stitch boundaries and using a measurement of non-uniformity within a stitched region. The results showed that non-uniformity variations were present, which increased with signal (1.5-3.5% at dark signal, rising to 3-8%). However, these were found to be smaller than variations caused by differences in readout electronics, particularly at low signal levels. The results suggest these variations should be correctable using standard calibration methods. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Keywords:Active Pixel Sensor, Characterisation, CMOS active pixel sensors, CMOS sensors, Complementary metal oxide semiconductors, Dynamic range, Electromagnetic interference, Full well capacity, Large area sensors, Low signal levels, Non-linear, Nonuniformity, Pixel pitch, Read noise, Readout Electronics, Regional variation, Reticle stitching, Sensor response, Standard calibration, Wafer scale, Xray imaging, Dielectric devices, Electromagnetic pulse, Optical instruments, Semiconducting silicon compounds, Sensors, Silicon wafers, Pixels
Subjects:F Physical Sciences > F350 Medical Physics
Divisions:College of Science > School of Computer Science
ID Code:8539
Deposited On:05 Apr 2013 08:55

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