A combined accelerator mass spectrometry-positron emission tomography human microdose study with 14C- and 11C-labelled verapamil

Wagner, Claudia C. and Simpson, Marie and Zeitlinger, Markus and Bauer, Martin and Karch, Rudolf and Abrahim, Aiman and Feurstein, Thomas and Schutz, Matthius and Kletter, Kurt and Muller, Markus and Lappin, Graham and Langer, Oliver (2011) A combined accelerator mass spectrometry-positron emission tomography human microdose study with 14C- and 11C-labelled verapamil. Clinical Pharmacokinetics, 50 (2). pp. 111-120. ISSN 0312-5963

Full content URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/11537250-000000000-00000

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Abstract

Background and Objective: In microdose studies, the pharmacokinetic profile of a drug in blood after administration of a dose up to 100 mg is measured with sensitive analytical techniques, such as accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). As most drugs exert their effect in tissue rather than blood, methodology is needed for extending pharmacokinetic analysis to different tissue compartments. In the present study,we combined, for the first time,AMS analysis with positron emission tomography (PET) in order to determine the pharmacokinetic profile of the model drug verapamil in plasma and brain of humans. In order to assess pharmacokinetic dose linearity of verapamil, data were acquired and compared after administration of an intravenous microdose and after an intravenous microdose administered concomitantly with an oral therapeutic dose. Methods: Six healthy male subjects received an intravenous microdose 0.05 mg (period 1) and an intravenous microdose administered concomitantly with an oral therapeutic dose 80 mg of verapamil (period 2) in a randomized, crossover, two-period study design. The intravenous dose was a mixture of (R/S)-14C verapamil and (R)-11Cverapamil and the oral dose was unlabelled racaemic verapamil. Brain distribution of radioactivity was measured with PET whereas plasma pharmacokinetics of (R)- and (S)-verapamil were determined with AMS. PET data were analysed by pharmacokinetic modelling to estimate the rate constants for transfer (k2) of radioactivity across the blood-brain barrier. Results: Most pharmacokinetic parameters of (R)- and (S)-verapamil as well as parameters describing exchange of radioactivity between plasma and brain (influx rate constant K1 = 0.030 ± 0.003 and 0.031 ± 0.005mL/ mL/min and efflux rate constant k2 = 0.099 ± 0.006 and 0.095 ± 0.008 min-1 for period 1 and 2, respectively) were not statistically different between the two periods although there was a trend for nonlinear pharmacokinetics for the (R)-enantiomer. On the other hand, all pharmacokinetic parameters (except for the terminal elimination halflife t 1/2) differed significantly between the (R)± and (S)±enantiomers for both periods. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC�) from 0 to 24 hours (AUC24) and AUC from time zero to infinity (AUC1) were higher and the total clearance (CL), volume of distribution (Vd) and volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) were lower for the (R)± than for the (S)-enantiomer. Conclusion: Combining AMS and PET microdosing allows long-term pharmacokinetic data along with information on drug tissue distribution to be acquired in the same subjects thus making it a promising approach to maximize data output from a single clinical study. © 2011 Adis Data Information BV. All rights reserved.

Keywords:carbon 11, carbon 14, verapamil, accelerator mass spectrometry, adult, area under the curve, article, blood brain barrier, brain, crossover procedure, distribution volume, dizziness, drug absorption, drug blood level, drug clearance, drug distribution, drug half life, drug induced headache, enantiomer, human, human experiment, isotope labeling, male, mass spectrometry, maximum plasma concentration, normal human, plasma, plasma concentration-time curve, positron emission tomography, priority journal, radioactivity, randomized controlled trial, steady state, tissue distribution, Area Under Curve, Blood-Brain Barrier, Calcium Channel Blockers, Carbon Radioisotopes, Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic, Half-Life, Humans, Models, Biological, Positron-Emission Tomography, Tandem Mass Spectrometry, Verapamil
Divisions:College of Science > School of Pharmacy
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ID Code:8212
Deposited On:24 Mar 2013 18:58

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