Mitochondrial involvement in brain function and dysfunction: relevance to aging, neurodegenerative disorders and longevity

Calabrese, V. and Scapagnini, G. and Giuffrida Stella, A. M. and Bates, T. E. and Clark, J. B. (2001) Mitochondrial involvement in brain function and dysfunction: relevance to aging, neurodegenerative disorders and longevity. Neurochemical Research, 26 (6). pp. 739-64. ISSN 0364-3190

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Item Type:Article
Item Status:Live Archive

Abstract

It is becoming increasingly evident that the mitochondrial genome may play a key role in neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondrial dysfunction is characteristic of several neurodegenerative disorders, and evidence for mitochondria being a site of damage in neurodegenerative disorders is partially based on decreases in respiratory chain complex activities in Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and Huntington's disease. Such defects in respiratory complex activities, possibly associated with oxidant/antioxidant balance perturbation, are thought to underlie defects in energy metabolism and induce cellular degeneration. Efficient functioning of maintenance and repair process seems to be crucial for both survival and physical quality of life. This is accomplished by a complex network of the so-called longevity assurance processes, which are composed of genes termed vitagenes. A promising approach for the identification of critical gerontogenic processes is represented by the hormesis-like positive effect of stress. In the present review, we discuss the role of energy thresholds in brain mitochondria and their implications in neurodegeneration. We then review the evidence for the role of oxidative stress in modulating the effects of mitochondrial DNA mutations on brain age-related disorders and also discuss new approaches for investigating the mechanisms of lifetime survival and longevity.

Keywords:brain, aging, neurodegeneration, longevity, mitochondria, function, dysfunction
Subjects:A Medicine and Dentistry > A100 Pre-clinical Medicine
B Subjects allied to Medicine > B140 Neuroscience
A Medicine and Dentistry > A300 Clinical Medicine
B Subjects allied to Medicine > B132 Pathobiology
B Subjects allied to Medicine > B130 Pathology
Divisions:College of Science > School of Life Sciences
ID Code:5263
Deposited On:03 Jun 2013 21:47

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