Modulatory mechanisms underlying high-frequency transcranial random noise stimulation (hf-tRNS): A combined stochastic resonance and equivalent noise approach.

Pavan, Andrea and Ghin, Filippo and Contillo, Adriano and Milesi, Chiara and Campana, Gianluca and Mather, George (2019) Modulatory mechanisms underlying high-frequency transcranial random noise stimulation (hf-tRNS): A combined stochastic resonance and equivalent noise approach. Brain Stimulation, 12 (4). pp. 967-977. ISSN 1935-861X

Full content URL: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2019.02.018

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Modulatory mechanisms underlying high-frequency transcranial random noise stimulation (hf-tRNS): A combined stochastic resonance and equivalent noise approach
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Abstract

BACKGROUND:

High-frequency transcranial random noise stimulation (hf-tRNS) is a neuromodulatory technique consisting of the application of alternating current at random intensities and frequencies. hf-tRNS induces random neural activity in the system that may boost the sensitivity of neurons to weak inputs. Stochastic resonance is a nonlinear phenomenon whereby the addition of an optimal amount of noise results in performance enhancement, whereas further noise increments impair signal detection or discrimination.
OBJECTIVE:

The aim of the study was to assess whether modulatory effects of hf-tRNS rely on the stochastic resonance phenomenon, and what is the specific neural mechanism producing stochastic resonance.
METHOD:

Observers performed a two-interval forced choice motion direction discrimination task in which they had to report whether two moving patches presented in two temporal intervals had the same or different motion directions. hf-tRNS was administered at five intensity levels (0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.25 mA).
RESULTS:

The results showed a significant improvement in performance when hf-tRNS was applied at 1.5 mA, representing the optimal level of external noise. However, stimulation intensity at 2.25 mA significantly impaired direction discrimination performance. An equivalent noise (EN) analysis, used to assess how hf-tRNS modulates the mechanisms underlying global motion processing, showed an increment in motion signal integration with the optimal current intensity, but reduced motion signal integration at 2.25 mA.
CONCLUSION:

These results indicate that hf-tRNS-induced noise modulates neural signal-to-noise ratio in a way that is compatible with the stochastic resonance phenomenon.

Keywords:Global motion, Global sampling, High-frequency transcranial random noise stimulation, Internal noise, Stochastic resonance
Subjects:C Biological Sciences > C850 Cognitive Psychology
B Subjects allied to Medicine > B140 Neuroscience
C Biological Sciences > C800 Psychology
C Biological Sciences > C830 Experimental Psychology
Divisions:College of Social Science > School of Psychology
ID Code:35410
Deposited On:10 Apr 2019 13:32

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