Cryptic lineage differentiation among Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in the northwest Indian Ocean

Gray, H. and Nishida, S. and Welch, A. J. and Moura, A. E. and Tanabe, S. and Kiani, M. S. and Culloch, R. and Möller, L. and Natoli, A. and Ponnampalam, L. S. and Minton, G. and Gore, M. and Collins, T. and Willson, A. and Baldwin, R. and Hoelzel, A. R. (2018) Cryptic lineage differentiation among Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in the northwest Indian Ocean. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 122 . pp. 1-14. ISSN 1055-7903

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Abstract

Phylogeography can provide insight into the potential for speciation and identify geographic regions and evolutionary processes associated with species richness and evolutionary endemism. In the marine environment, highly mobile species sometimes show structured patterns of diversity, but the processes isolating populations and promoting differentiation are often unclear. The Delphinidae (oceanic dolphins) are a striking case in point and, in particular, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops spp.). Understanding the radiation of species in this genus is likely to provide broader inference about the processes that determine patterns of biogeography and speciation, because both fine-scale structure over a range of kilometers and relative panmixia over an oceanic range are known for Tursiops populations. In our study, novel Tursiops spp. sequences from the northwest Indian Ocean (including mitogenomes and two nuDNA loci) are included in a worldwide Tursiops spp. phylogeographic analysis. We discover a new ‘aduncus’ type lineage in the Arabian Sea (off India, Pakistan and Oman) that diverged from the Australasian lineage ∼261 Ka. Effective management of coastal dolphins in the region will need to consider this new lineage as an evolutionarily significant unit. We propose that the establishment of this lineage could have been in response to climate change during the Pleistocene and show data supporting hypotheses for multiple divergence events, including vicariance across the Indo-Pacific barrier and in the northwest Indian Ocean. These data provide valuable transferable inference on the potential mechanisms for population and species differentiation across this geographic range.

Keywords:Conservation, Indian Ocean, Phylogeography, Pleistocene, Taxonomy, Tursiops aduncus
Subjects:C Biological Sciences > C161 Marine Biology
C Biological Sciences > C181 Biodiversity
C Biological Sciences > C180 Ecology
C Biological Sciences > C182 Evolution
C Biological Sciences > C100 Biology
C Biological Sciences > C400 Genetics
C Biological Sciences > C300 Zoology
C Biological Sciences > C350 Marine Zoology
Divisions:College of Science > School of Life Sciences
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ID Code:30358
Deposited On:07 Feb 2018 14:22

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