Isolation of digital dermatitis treponemes from hoof lesions in wild North American elk (Cervus elaphus) in Washington State, USA

Clegg, S. R. and Mansfield, K. G. and Newbrook, K. and Sullivan, L. E. and Blowey, R. W. and Carter, S. D. and Evans, N. J. (2015) Isolation of digital dermatitis treponemes from hoof lesions in wild North American elk (Cervus elaphus) in Washington State, USA. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 53 (1). pp. 88-94. ISSN 0095-1137

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Abstract

Since 2008, a large increase in the numbers of cases of lameness have been seen in wild North American elk (Cervus elaphus) from Washington State, USA. The most recent cases manifested as foot lesions similar both clinically and pathologically to those seen in digital dermatitis (DD) in cattle and sheep, a disease with a bacterial etiopathogenesis. To determine whether the same bacteria considered responsible for DD are associated with elk lameness, lesion samples were subjected to bacterial isolation studies and PCR assays for three phylogroups of relevant DD treponemes. The DD treponemes were isolated from lesional tissues but not from control feet or other areas of the diseased foot (including the coronary band or interdigital space), suggesting that the bacteria are strongly associated with DD lesions and may therefore be causal. In addition, PCR analysis revealed that all three unique DD treponeme phylotypes were found in elk hoof disease, and in 23 of samples, all 3 DD-associated treponemes were present in lesions. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene showed that the elk lesion treponemes were phylogenetically almost identical to those isolated from cattle and sheep DD lesions. The isolates were particularly similar to two of the three culturable DD treponeme phylotypes: specifically, the Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like and Treponema phagedenis-like DD spirochetes. The third treponeme culturable phylogroup (Treponema pedis), although detected by PCR, was not isolated. This is the first report describing isolation of DD treponemes from a wildlife host, suggesting that the disease may be evolving to include a wider spectrum of cloven-hoofed animals. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Additional Information:cited By 17
Keywords:RNA 16S, RNA 16S, animal tissue, Article, bacterium detection, bacterium identification, bacterium isolation, controlled study, digital dermatitis, foot disease, nonhuman, phylogeny, polymerase chain reaction, red deer, sequence analysis, Treponema, Treponema medium, Treponema pedis, Treponema phagedenis, Treponema vincentii, treponematosis, animal, animal disease, classification, genetics, hoof and claw, isolation and purification, microbiology, pathology, United States, veterinary, wild animal, Animalia, Bacteria (microorganisms), Bos, Cervus elaphus, Ovis aries, Treponema phagedenis, Animal Diseases, Animals, Animals, Wild, RNA, Ribosomal, 16S, Treponemal Infections, Washington
Subjects:D Veterinary Sciences, Agriculture and related subjects > D328 Animal Welfare
D Veterinary Sciences, Agriculture and related subjects > D320 Animal Health
C Biological Sciences > C522 Veterinary Microbiology
Divisions:College of Science > School of Life Sciences
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ID Code:29864
Deposited On:20 Feb 2018 12:29

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