Adaptation of chain event graphs for use with case-Control studies in epidemiology

Keeble, Claire and Thwaites, Peter Adam and Barber, Stuart and Law, Graham Richard and Baxter, Paul David (2017) Adaptation of chain event graphs for use with case-Control studies in epidemiology. The International Journal of Biostatistics, 13 (2). ISSN 1557-4679

Full content URL: http://doi.org/10.1515/ijb-2016-0073

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29511 [The International Journal of Biostatistics] Adaptation of Chain Event Graphs for use with Case-Control Studies in Epidemiology.pdf

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Abstract

Case-control studies are used in epidemiology to try to uncover the causes of diseases, but are a retrospective study design known to suffer from non-participation and recall bias, which may explain their decreased popularity in recent years. Traditional analyses report usually only the odds ratio for given exposures and the binary disease status. Chain event graphs are a graphical representation of a statistical model derived from event trees which have been developed in artificial intelligence and statistics, and only recently introduced to the epidemiology literature. They are a modern Bayesian technique which enable prior knowledge to be incorporated into the data analysis using the agglomerative hierarchical clustering algorithm, used to form a suitable chain event graph. Additionally, they can account for missing data and be used to explore missingness mechanisms. Here we adapt the chain event graph framework to suit scenarios often encountered in case-control studies, to strengthen this study design which is time and financially efficient. We demonstrate eight adaptations to the graphs, which consist of two suitable for full case-control study analysis, four which can be used in interim analyses to explore biases, and two which aim to improve the ease and accuracy of analyses. The adaptations are illustrated with complete, reproducible, fully-interpreted examples, including the event tree and chain event graph. Chain event graphs are used here for the first time to summarise non-participation, data collection techniques, data reliability, and disease severity in case-control studies. We demonstrate how these features of a case-control study can be incorporated into the analysis to provide further insight, which can help to identify potential biases and lead to more accurate study results.

Keywords:Chain event graph, Case-control study, Non-participation, Missing data, Selection bias
Subjects:G Mathematical and Computer Sciences > G311 Medical Statistics
Divisions:College of Social Science > School of Health & Social Care
ID Code:29511
Deposited On:11 Nov 2017 17:34

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