High prevalence of Trichomonas gallinae in wild columbids across western and southern Europe

Marx, Melanie and Reiner, Gerald and Willems, Hermann and Rocha, Gregorio and Hillerich, Klaus and Masello, Juan F. and Mayr, Sylvia L. and Moussa, Sarah and Dunn, Jenny C. and Thomas, Rebecca C. and Goodman, Simon J. and Hamer, Keith C. and Metzger, Benjamin and Cecere, Jacopo G. and Spina, Fernando and Koschkar, Steffen and Calderón, Luciano and Romeike, Tanja and Quillfeldt, Petra (2017) High prevalence of Trichomonas gallinae in wild columbids across western and southern Europe. Parasites & Vectors, 10 (1). ISSN 1756-3305

Full content URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-017-2170-0

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Abstract

Background
Avian trichomonosis is known as a widespread disease in columbids and passerines, and recent findings have highlighted the pathogenic character of some lineages found in wild birds. Trichomonosis can affect wild bird populations including endangered species, as has been shown for Mauritian pink pigeons Nesoenas mayeri in Mauritius and suggested for European turtle doves Streptopelia turtur in the UK. However, the disease trichomonosis is caused only by pathogenic lineages of the parasite Trichomonas gallinae. Therefore, understanding the prevalence and distribution of both potentially pathogenic and non-pathogenic T. gallinae lineages in turtle doves and other columbids across Europe is relevant to estimate the potential impact of the disease on a continental scale.

Results
We examined 281 samples from four wild columbid species for Trichomonas infection and determined the genetic lineages. The overall prevalence was 74%. There were significant differences between the species (P = 0.007). The highest prevalence was found in stock doves Columba oenas (86%, n = 79) followed by wood pigeons Columba palumbus (70%, n = 61) and turtle doves (67%, n = 65), while three of five collared doves Streptopelia decaocto (60%) were infected. We found seven different lineages, including four lineages present in columbids in the UK, one lineage already described from Spain and three new lineages, one of those found in a single turtle dove migrating through Italy and another one found in a breeding stock dove. Stock doves from Germany and collared doves from Malta were infected with a potentially pathogenic lineage (lineage A/B), which is known to cause lesions and mortality in columbids, raptors and finches.

Conclusions
Generally, turtle doves showed high prevalence of Trichomonas infection. Furthermore, the potentially pathogenic lineage A/B (or genotype B according to previous literature) was found in a recovering stock dove population. Both findings are worrying for these columbid species due to the occasional epidemic character of trichomonosis, which can have severe negative effects on populations.

Keywords:Trichomonas gallinae, Columbiformes, Stock dove, Phylogenetic analysis, Genetic lineage, Pathogen
Subjects:C Biological Sciences > C180 Ecology
C Biological Sciences > C111 Parasitology
C Biological Sciences > C432 Veterinary Genetics
D Veterinary Sciences, Agriculture and related subjects > D320 Animal Health
C Biological Sciences > C410 Applied Genetics
C Biological Sciences > C100 Biology
Divisions:College of Science > School of Life Sciences
ID Code:27598
Deposited On:29 May 2017 19:47

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