State of the climate in 2015

Aaron-Morrison, A.P. and Ackerman, S.A. and Adams, N.G. and Adler, R.F. and Albanil, A. and Alfaro, E.J. and Allan, R. and Alves, L.M. and Amador, J.A. and Andreassen, L.M. and Arendt, A. and Arevalo, J. and Arndt, D.S. and Arzhanova, N.M. and Aschan, M.M. and Azorin-Molina, C. and Banzon, V. and Bardin, M.U. and Barichivich, J. and Baringer, M.O. and Barreira, S. and Baxter, S. and Bazo, J. and Becker, A. and Bedka, K.M. and Behrenfeld, M.J. and Bell, G.D. and Belmont, M. and Benedetti, A. and Bernhard, G. and Berrisford, P. and Berry, D.I. and Bettolli, M.L. and Bhatt, U.S. and Bidegain, M. and Bill, B.D. and Billheimer, S. and Bissolli, P. and Blake, E.S. and Blunden, J. and Bosilovich, M.G. and Boucher, O. and Boudet, D. and Box, J.E. and Boyer, T. and Braathen, G.O. and Bromwich, D.H. and Brown, R. and Bulygina, O.N. and Burgess, D. and Calderon, B. and Camargo, S.J. and Campbell, J.D. and Cappelen, J. and Carrasco, G. and Carter, B.R. and Chambers, D.P. and Chandler, E. and Christiansen, H.H. and Christy, J.R. and Chung, D. and Chung, E.-S. and Cinque, K. and Clem, K.R. and Coelho, C.A. and Cogley, J.G. and Coldewey-Egbers, M. and Colwell, S. and Cooper, O.R. and Copland, L. and Cosca, C.E. and Cross, J.N. and Crotwell, M.J. and Crouch, J. and Davis, S.M. and De Eyto, E. and De Jeu, R.A.M. and De Laat, J. and Degasperi, C.L. and Degenstein, D. and Demircan, M. and Derksen, C. and Destin, D. and Di Girolamo, L. and Di Giuseppe, F. and Diamond, H.J. and Dlugokencky, E.J. and Dohan, K. and Dokulil, M.T. and Dolgov, A.V. and Dolman, A.J. and Domingues, C.M. and Donat, M.G. and Dong, S. and Dorigo, W.A. and Dortch, Q. and Doucette, G. and Drozdov, D.S. and Ducklow, H. and Dunn, R.J.H. and Duran-Quesada, A.M. and Dutton, G.S. and Ebrahim, A. and Elkharrim, M. and Elkins, J.W. and Espinoza, J.C. and Etienne-Leblanc, S. and Evans, III and Famiglietti, J.S. and Farrell, S. and Fateh, S. and Fausto, R.S. and Fedaeff, N. and Feely, R.A. and Feng, Z. and Fenimore, C. and Fettweis, X. and Fioletov, V.E. and Flemming, J. and Fogarty, C.T. and Fogt, R.L. and Folland, C. and Fonseca, C. and Fossheim, M. and Foster, M.J. and Fountain, A. and Francis, S.D. and Franz, B.A. and Frey, R.A. and Frith, S.M. and Froidevaux, L. and Ganter, C. and Garzoli, S. and Gerland, S. and Gobron, N. and Goldenberg, S.B. and Gomez, R.S. and Goni, G. and Goto, A. and Grooss, J.-U. and Gruber, A. and Guard, C.C. and Gugliemin, M. and Gupta, S.K. and Gutierrez, J.M. and Hagos, S. and Hahn, S. and Haimberger, L. and Hakkarainen, J. and Hall, B.D. and Halpert, M.S. and Hamlington, B.D. and Hanna, E. and Hansen, K. and Hanssen-Bauer, I. and Harris, I. and Heidinger, A.K. and Heikkilä, A. and Heil, A. and Heim, Jr. and Hendricks, S. and Hernandez, M. and Hidalgo, H.G. and Hilburn, K. and Ho, S.-P.B. and Holmes, R.M. and Hu, Z.-Z. and Huang, B. and Huelsing, H.K. and Huffman, G.J. and Hughes, C. and Hurst, D.F. and Ialongo, I. and Ijampy, J.A. and Ingvaldsen, R.B. and Inness, A. and Isaksen, K. and Ishii, M. and Jevrejeva, S. and Jimenez, C. and Jin, X. and Johannesen, E. and John, V. and Johnsen, B. and Johnson, B. and Johnson, G.C. and Jones, P.D. and Joseph, A.C. and Jumaux, G. and Kabidi, K. and Kaiser, J.W. and Kato, S. and Kazemi, A. and Keller, L.M. and Kendon, M. and Kennedy, J. and Kerr, K. and Kholodov, A.L. and Khoshkam, M. and Killick, R. and Kim, H. and Kim, S.-J. and Kimberlain, T.B. and Klotzbach, P.J. and Knaff, J.A. and Kobayashi, S. and Kohler, J. and Korhonen, J. and Korshunova, N.N. and Kovacs, K.M. and Kramarova, N. and Kratz, D.P. and Kruger, A. and Kruk, M.C. and Kudela, R. and Kumar, A. and Lakatos, M. and Lakkala, K. and Lander, M.A. and Landsea, C.W. and Lankhorst, M. and Lantz, K. and Lazzara, M.A. and Lemons, P. and Leuliette, E. and L'Heureux, M. and Lieser, J.L. and Lin, I.-I. and Liu, H. and Liu, Y. and Locarnini, R. and Loeb, N.G. and Lo Monaco, C. and Long, C.S. and Lopez Alvarez, L.A. and Lorrey, A.M. and Loyola, D. and Lumpkin, R. and Luo, J.-J. and Luojus, K. and Lydersen, C. and Lyman, J.M. and Maberly, S.C. and Maddux, B.C. and Malheiros Ramos, A. and Malkova, G.V. and Manney, G. and Marcellin, V. and Marchenko, S.S. and Marengo, J.A. and Marra, J.J. and Marszelewski, W. and Martens, B. and Marti­nez-Guingla, R. and Massom, R.A. and Mata, M.M. and Mathis, J.T. and May, L. and Mayer, M. and Mazloff, M. and McBride, C. and McCabe, M.F. and McCarthy, M. and McClelland, J.W. and McGree, S. and McVicar, T.R. and Mears, C.A. and Meier, W. and Meinen, C.S. and Mekonnen, A. and Menendez, M. and Mengistu Tsidu, G. and Menzel, W.P. and Merchant, C.J. and Meredith, M.P. and Merrifield, M.A. and Metzl, N. and Minnis, P. and Miralles, D.G. and Mistelbauer, T. and Mitchum, G.T. and Monselesan, D. and Monteiro, P. and Montzka, S.A. and Morice, C. and Mote, T. and Mudryk, L. and Mühle, J. and Mullan, A.B. and Nash, E.R. and Naveira-Garabato, A.C. and Nerem, R.S. and Newman, P.A. and Nieto, J.J. and Noetzli, J. and O'Neel, S. and Osborn, T.J. and Overland, J. and Oyunjargal, L. and Parinussa, R.M. and Park, E.-H. and Parker, D. and Parrington, M. and Parsons, A.R. and Pasch, R.J. and Pascual-Ramirez, R. and Paterson, A.M. and Paulik, C. and Pearce, P.R. and Pelto, M.S. and Peng, L. and Perkins-Kirkpatrick, S.E. and Perovich, D. and Petropavlovskikh, I. and Pezza, A.B. and Phillips, D. and Pinty, B. and Pitts, M.C. and Pons, M.R. and Porter, A.O. and Primicerio, R. and Proshutinsky, A. and Quegan, S. and Quintana, J. and Rahimzadeh, F. and Rajeevan, M. and Randriamarolaza, L. and Razuvaev, V.N. and Reagan, J. and Reid, P. and Reimer, C. and Remy, S. and Renwick, J.A. and Revadekar, J.V. and Richter-Menge, J. and Riffler, M. and Rimmer, A. and Rintoul, S. and Robinson, D.A. and Rodell, M. and Rodriguez Soli­s, J.L. and Romanovsky, V.E. and Ronchail, J. and Rosenlof, K.H. and Roth, C. and Rusak, J.A. and Sabine, C.L. and Sallee, J.-B. and Sanchez-Lugo, A. and Santee, M.L. and Sawaengphokhai, P. and Sayouri, A. and Scambos, T.A. and Schemm, J. and Schladow, S.G. and Schmid, C. and Schmid, M. and Schmidtko, S. and Schreck, C. J. and Selkirk, H.B. and Send, U. and Sensoy, S. and Setzer, A. and Sharp, M. and Shaw, A. and Shi, L. and Shiklomanov, A.I. and Shiklomanov, N.I. and Siegel, D.A. and Signorini, S.R. and Sima, F. and Simmons, A.J. and Smeets, C.J.P.P. and Smith, S.L. and Spence, J.M. and Srivastava, A.K. and Stackhouse, P.W. and Stammerjohn, S. and Steinbrecht, W. and Stella, J.L. and Stengel, M. and Stennett-Brown, R. and Stephenson, T.S. and Strahan, S. and Streletskiy, D.A. and Sun-Mack, S. and Swart, S. and Sweet, W. and Talley, L.D. and Tamar, G. and Tank, S.E. and Taylor, M.A. and Tedesco, M. and Teubner, K. and Thoman, R.L. and Thompson, P. and Thomson, L. and Timmermans, M.-L. and Tirnanes, J.A. and Tobin, S. and Trachte, K. and Trainer, V.L. and Tretiakov, M. and Trewin, B.C. and Trotman, A.R. and Tschudi, M. and Van As, D. and Van De Wal, R.S.W. and van der A., R.J. and Van Der Schalie, R. and Van Der Schrier, G. and Van Der Werf, G.R. and Van Meerbeeck, C.J. and Velicogna, I. and Verburg, P. and Vigneswaran, B. and Vincent, L.A. and Volkov, D. and Vose, R.S. and Wagner, W. and WÃ¥hlin, A. and Wahr, J. and Walsh, J. and Wang, C. and Wang, J. and Wang, L. and Wang, M. and Wang, S.-H. and Wanninkhof, R. and Watanabe, S. and Weber, M. and Weller, R.A. and Weyhenmeyer, G.A. and Whitewood, R. and Wijffels, S.E. and Wilber, A.C. and Wild, J.D. and Willett, K.M. and Williams, M.J.M. and Willie, S. and Wolken, G. and Wong, T. and Wood, E.F. and Woolway, R.I. and Wouters, B. and Xue, Y. and Yamada, R. and Yim, S.-Y. and Yin, X. and Young, S.H. and Yu, L. and Zahid, H. and Zambrano, E. and Zhang, P. and Zhao, G. and Zhou, L. and Ziemke, J.R. and Love-Brotak, S.E. and Gilbert, K. and Maycock, T. and Osborne, S. and Sprain, M. and Veasey, S.W. and Ambrose, B.J. and Griffin, J. and Misch, D.J. and Riddle, D.B. and Young, T. (2016) State of the climate in 2015. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 97 (8). S1-S275. ISSN 0003-0007

Full content URL: https://doi.org/10.1175/2016BAMSStateoftheClimate....

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Abstract

In 2015, the dominant greenhouse gases released into Earths atmosphere, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, all continued to reach new high levels. At Mauna Loa, Hawaii, the annual CO2 concentration increased by a record 3.1 ppm, exceeding 400 ppm for the first time on record. The 2015 global CO2 average neared this threshold, at 399.4 ppm. Additionally, one of the strongest El Niño events since at least 1950 developed in spring 2015 and continued to evolve through the year. The phenomenon was far reaching, impacting many regions across the globe and affecting most aspects of the climate system. Owing to the combination of El Nino and a long-term upward trend, Earth observed record warmth for the second consecutive year, with the 2015 annual global surface temperature surpassing the previous record by more than 0.1°C and exceeding the average for the mid- to late 19th century commonly considered representative of preindustrial conditions by more than 1°C for the first time. Above Earth's surface, lower troposphere temperatures were near-record high. Across land surfaces, record to near-record warmth was reported across every inhabited continent. Twelve countries, including Russia and China, reported record high annual temperatures. In June, one of the most severe heat waves since 1980 affected Karachi, Pakistan, claiming over 1000 lives. On 27 October, Vredendal, South Africa, reached 48.4°C, a new global high temperature record for this month. In the Arctic, the 2015 land surface temperature was 1.2°C above the 1981â��2010 average, tying 2007 and 2011 for the highest annual temperature and representing a 2.8°C increase since the record began in 1900. Increasing temperatures have led to decreasing Arctic sea ice extent and thickness. On 25 February 2015, the lowest maximum sea ice extent in the 37-year satellite record was observed, 7 below the 1981's 2010 average. Mean sea surface temperatures across the Arctic Ocean during August in ice-free regions, representative of Arctic Ocean summer anomalies, ranged from ~0°C to 8°C above average. As a consequence of sea ice retreat and warming oceans, vast walrus herds in the Pacific Arctic are hauling out on land rather than on sea ice, raising concern about the energetics of females and young animals. Increasing temperatures in the Barents Sea are linked to a community-wide shift in fish populations: boreal communities are now farther north, and long-standing Arctic species have been almost pushed out of the area. Above average sea surface temperatures are not confined to the Arctic. Sea surface temperature for 2015 was record high at the global scale; however, the North Atlantic southeast of Greenland remained colder than average and colder than 2014. Global annual ocean heat content and mean sea level also reached new record highs. The Greenland Ice Sheet, with the capacity to contribute ~7 m to sea level rise, experienced melting over more than 50 of its surface for the first time since the record melt of 2012. Other aspects of the cryosphere were remarkable. Alpine glacier retreat continued, and preliminary data indicate that 2015 is the 36th consecutive year of negative annual mass balance. Across the Northern Hemisphere, late-spring snow cover extent continued its trend of decline, with June the second lowest in the 49-year satellite record. Below the surface, record high temperatures at 20-m depth were measured at all permafrost observatories on the North Slope of Alaska, increasing by up to 0.66°C decades 1 since 2000. In the Antarctic, surface pressure and temperatures were lower than the 1981-2010 average for most of the year, consistent with the primarily positive southern annular mode, which saw a record high index value of +4.92 in February. Antarctic sea ice extent and area had large intra-annual variability, with a shift from record high levels in May to record low levels in August. Springtime ozone depletion resulted in one of the largest and most persistent Antarctic ozone holes observed since the 1990s. Closer to the equator, 101 named tropical storms were observed in 2015, well above the 1981-2010 average of 82. The eastern/central Pacific had 26 named storms, the most since 1992. The western north Pacific and north and south Indian Ocean basins also saw high activity. Globally, eight tropical cyclones reached the Saffir Simpson Category 5 intensity level. Overlaying a general increase in the hydrologic cycle, the strong El Niño enhanced precipitation variability around the world. An above-normal rainy season led to major floods in Paraguay, Bolivia, and southern Brazil. In May, the United States recorded its all-time wettest month in its 121-year national record. Denmark and Norway reported their second and third wettest year on record, respectively, but globally soil moisture was below average, terrestrial groundwater storage was the lowest in the 14-year record, and areas in severe drought rose from 8 in 2014 to 14 in 2015. Drought conditions prevailed across many Caribbean island nations, Colombia, Venezuela, and northeast Brazil for most of the year. Several South Pacific countries also experienced drought. Lack of rainfall across Ethiopia led to its worst drought in decades and affected millions of people, while prolonged drought in South Africa severely affected agricultural production. Indian summer monsoon rainfall was just 86 of average. Extremely dry conditions in Indonesia resulted in intense and widespread fires during August-November that produced abundant carbonaceous aerosols, carbon monoxide, and ozone. Overall, emissions from tropical Asian biomass burning in 2015 were almost three times the 2001-14 average. © 2015 by the artist.

Keywords:Agriculture, Atmospheric temperature, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Digital storage, Drought, Earth atmosphere, Fisheries, Greenhouse gases, Groundwater, Hurricanes, Nickel, Nitrogen oxides, Oceanography, Ozone, Ozone layer, Precipitation (meteorology), Rain, Sea ice, Sea level, Snow, Soil moisture, Storms, Submarine geophysics, Surface measurement, Surface properties, Surface waters, Tropics, Water conservation, Agricultural productions, Global surface temperature, Indian summer monsoon rainfall, Intra-annual variability, Land surface temperature, Pre-industrial conditions, Precipitation variability, Sea surface temperature (SST), Ice, JCOpen
Subjects:F Physical Sciences > F331 Atmospheric Physics
Divisions:College of Science > School of Geography
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ID Code:25973
Deposited On:10 Feb 2017 16:35

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