Diversifying selection between pure-breed and free-breeding dogs inferred from genome-wide SNP analysis

Pilot, Malgorzata and Malewski, Tadeusz and Moura, Andre and Grzybowski, Tomasz and Olenski, Kamil and Kaminski, Stanislaw and Fadel, Fernanda and Alagaili, Abdulaziz and Mohammed, Osama and Bogdanowicz, Wieslaw (2016) Diversifying selection between pure-breed and free-breeding dogs inferred from genome-wide SNP analysis. G3: Genes Genomes Genetics, 6 (8). ISSN 2160-1836

Full content URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/g3.116.029678

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Abstract

Domesticated species are often composed of distinct populations differing in the character and strength of artificial and natural selection pressures, providing a valuable model to study adaptation. In contrast to pure-breed dogs that constitute artificially maintained inbred lines, free-ranging dogs are typically free-breeding, i.e. unrestrained in mate choice. Many traits in free-breeding dogs (FBDs) may be under similar natural and sexual selection conditions to wild canids, while relaxation of sexual selection is expected in pure-breed dogs. We used a Bayesian approach with strict false-positive control criteria to identify FST-outlier SNPs between FBDs and either European or East Asian breeds, based on 167,989 autosomal SNPs. By identifying outlier SNPs located within coding genes, we found four candidate genes under diversifying selection shared by these two comparisons. Three of them are associated with the Hedgehog (HH) signalling pathway regulating vertebrate morphogenesis. A comparison between FBDs and East Asian breeds also revealed diversifying selection on BBS6 gene, which was earlier shown to cause snout shortening and dental crowding via disrupted HH signalling. Our results suggest that relaxation of natural and sexual selection in pure-breed dogs as opposed to FBDs could have led to mild changes in regulation of the HH signalling pathway. HH inhibits adhesion and migration of neural crest cells from neural tube, and minor deficits of these cells during embryonic development have been proposed as the underlying cause of “domestication syndrome”. This suggests that the process of breed formation involved the same genetic and developmental pathways as the process of domestication.

Keywords:Canis lupus familiaris, hedgehog signalling pathway, artificial selection, domestication syndrome, JCOpen
Subjects:C Biological Sciences > C400 Genetics
C Biological Sciences > C182 Evolution
Divisions:College of Science > School of Life Sciences
ID Code:23231
Deposited On:01 Jun 2016 20:00

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