Exploring the mechanisms behind the effects of chronic bovine colostrum supplementation on risk of upper respiratory tract infection

Jones, Arwel and Thatcher, Rhys and Mur, Luis A. J. and Cameron, Simon J. S. and Beecroft, Marikka and Davison, Glen (2013) Exploring the mechanisms behind the effects of chronic bovine colostrum supplementation on risk of upper respiratory tract infection. International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings, 10 (1). ISSN 1939-795X

Full content URL: http://digitalcommons.wku.edu/ijesab/vol10/iss1/11...

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Abstract

Chronic bovine colostrum (COL) supplementation has been shown to reduce the incidence of upper
respiratory tract infection (URTI) but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Fifty seven highly
active males (aged 18-62) were randomised to daily supplementation of 20g of COL (N = 28) or an
isoenergetic/isomacronutrient placebo (PLA) (N = 29) for 12 weeks under double-blind procedures.
Daily illness and weekly activity logs were completed. Resting blood samples collected at baseline and
at 12 weeks were analysed for total/differential leukocyte counts and in-vitro stimulated neutrophil
oxidative burst. Metabolomic profiling of serum samples at these timepoints was performed using
fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and direct-infusion – electrospray-ionisation – mass
spectroscopy. Secretory IgA and bacterial load were measured within saliva samples obtained at
baseline, 4, 8 and 12 weeks using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time, quantitative
PCR methods respectively. The mean number of URTI episodes was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in
the PLA group (0.8 ± 0.7) than in COL group (0.5 ± 0.7). There were a significantly greater proportion
of days with URTI symptoms in the PLA group (P < 0.001) compared to COL group. No statistical
differences were found between leukocyte counts, neutrophil oxidative burst or salivary IgA across
time or between groups (P > 0.05). However, Discriminant Function Analyses (DFA) of outputs
received from the metabolomic profiling showed a significant difference between COL and PLA at 12
weeks (P < 0.05). Interrogation of the loading vectors in the DFA models indicated 10 metabolites
which contributed most to the difference between COL and PLA which included, but were not limited
to, decreased noradrenaline, uric acid, and dehydroascorbic acid with COL (P<0.05). There was a
general increase in bacterial load within groups, over the 12 week period, but this increase was
significantly lower (P < 0.05) with COL. These findings support previously reported evidence
regarding the effects of COL on URTI incidence. Although the lack of effect on immune measures does
not support some of the previously suggested mechanisms (e.g. improved resting salivary IgA
concentration) some further sample analysis is currently outstanding. Also, the effects on the
responses to exercise (which were not assessed in this study) may explain the lower URTI incidence
and bacterial load with COL in these athletes. The differences observed in metabolomics profiling
highlights novel potential mechanisms behind the effect of COL on infection risk, but outstanding
analyses mentioned above and further study is required to verify this.

Additional Information:11th International Society of Exercise and Immunology Symposium, Newcastle, Australia.
Keywords:Athletes, endurance exercise, URTI, Metabolomics, Microbiome, Innate immunity, Mucosal immunity, Nutritional supplements
Subjects:C Biological Sciences > C550 Immunology
C Biological Sciences > C730 Metabolic Biochemistry
C Biological Sciences > C600 Sports Science
B Subjects allied to Medicine > B400 Nutrition
B Subjects allied to Medicine > B120 Physiology
C Biological Sciences > C500 Microbiology
Divisions:College of Social Science
College of Social Science > Lincoln Institute of Health
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ID Code:23139
Deposited On:16 May 2016 16:11

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