Prevalence of CADASIL and Fabry disease in a cohort of MRI defined younger onset lacunar stroke

Kilarski, Laura L. and Rutten-Jacobs, Loes C. A. and Bevan, Stephen and Baker, Rob and Hassan, Ahamad and Hughes, Derralynn A. and Markus, Hugh S. (2015) Prevalence of CADASIL and Fabry disease in a cohort of MRI defined younger onset lacunar stroke. PloS one, 10 (8). e0136352. ISSN 1932-6203

Full content URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136352

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Prevalence of CADASIL and Fabry disease in a cohort of MRI defined younger onset lacunar stroke
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Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE

Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), caused by mutations in the NOTCH3 gene, is the most common monogenic disorder causing lacunar stroke and cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). Fabry disease (FD) due to mutations in the GLA gene has been suggested as an underdiagnosed cause of stroke, and one feature is SVD. Previous studies reported varying prevalence of CADASIL and FD in stroke, likely due to varying subtypes studied; no studies have looked at a large cohort of younger onset SVD. We determined the prevalence in a well-defined, MRI-verified cohort of apparently sporadic patients with lacunar infarct.

METHODS

Caucasian patients with lacunar infarction, aged ≤70 years (mean age 56.7 (SD8.6)), were recruited from 72 specialist stroke centres throughout the UK as part of the Young Lacunar Stroke DNA Resource. Patients with a previously confirmed monogenic cause of stroke were excluded. All MRI's and clinical histories were reviewed centrally. Screening was performed for NOTCH3 and GLA mutations.

RESULTS

Of 994 subjects five had pathogenic NOTCH3 mutations (R169C, R207C, R587C, C1222G and C323S) all resulting in loss or gain of a cysteine in the NOTCH3 protein. All five patients had confluent leukoaraiosis (Fazekas grade ≥2). CADASIL prevalence overall was 0.5% (95% CI 0.2%-1.1%) and among cases with confluent leukoaraiosis 1.5% (95% CI 0.6%-3.3%). No classic pathogenic FD mutations were found; one patient had a missense mutation (R118C), associated with late-onset FD.

CONCLUSION

CADASIL cases are rare and only detected in SVD patients with confluent leukoaraiosis. No definite FD cases were detected.

Keywords:CADASIL, Stroke, Genetics, JCOpen
Subjects:C Biological Sciences > C420 Human Genetics
Divisions:College of Science > School of Life Sciences
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ID Code:19434
Deposited On:04 Nov 2015 14:27

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