The identification of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans in archaeological human bones and teeth

Coulson-Thomas, Yvette M. and Coulson-Thomas, Vivien J. and Norton, Andrew L. and Gesteira, Tarsis F. and Cavalheiro, Renan P. and and João R. Martins, Maria Cecília Z. Meneghetti and Dixon, Ronald A. and Nader, Helena B. (2015) The identification of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans in archaeological human bones and teeth. PloS one, 10 (6). e0131105. ISSN 1932-6203

Full content URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131105

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Abstract

Bone tissue is mineralized dense connective tissue consisting mainly of a mineral component (hydroxyapatite) and an organic matrix comprised of collagens, non-collagenous proteins and proteoglycans (PGs). Extracellular matrix proteins and PGs bind tightly to hydroxyapatite which would protect these molecules from the destructive effects of temperature and chemical agents after death. DNA and proteins have been successfully extracted from archaeological skeletons from which valuable information has been obtained; however, to date neither PGs nor glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains have been studied in archaeological skeletons. PGs and GAGs play a major role in bone morphogenesis, homeostasis and degenerative bone disease. The ability to isolate and characterize PG and GAG content from archaeological skeletons would unveil valuable paleontological information. We therefore optimized methods for the extraction of both PGs and GAGs from archaeological human skeleto ns. PGs and GAGs were successfully extracted from both archaeological human bones and teeth, and characterized by their electrophoretic mobility in agarose gel, degradation by specific enzymes and HPLC. The GAG populations isolated were chondroitin sulfate (CS) and hyaluronic acid (HA). In addition, a CSPG was detected. The localization of CS, HA, three small leucine rich PGs (biglycan, decorin and fibromodulin) and glypican was analyzed in archaeological human bone slices. Staining patterns were different for juvenile and adult bones, whilst adolescent bones had a similar staining pattern to adult bones. The finding that significant quantities of PGs and GAGs persist in archaeological bones and teeth opens novel venues for the field of Paleontology.

Keywords:Human bone, Archaeological bone, NotOAChecked
Subjects:V Historical and Philosophical studies > V490 Archaeology not elsewhere classified
Divisions:College of Science > School of Life Sciences
ID Code:18317
Deposited On:05 Aug 2015 14:57

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