Human walking behavior: the effect of pedestrian flow and personal space invasions on walking speed and direction

Frohnwieser, Anna and Hopf, Richard and Oberzaucher, Elisabeth (2013) Human walking behavior: the effect of pedestrian flow and personal space invasions on walking speed and direction. Human Ethology Bulletin, 28 (3). pp. 20-28. ISSN 2224-4476

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Frohnwieser et al 2013 Human Walking Behavior
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Abstract

Humans have a natural desire to keep a certain spatial distance to other humans, called
personal space (Hall, 1966). If personal space is invaded without consent physiological
reactions such as increased heart rate, sweating, and increased blood pressure are triggered
(Middlemist et al., 1976).
Using a newly developed system called CCB Analyser the walking pa!erns of pedestrians in an
Austrian shopping center were recorded. Data included number of people, average speed, speed
changes, direction changes, and two different measures for personal space, one being personal
space in circles around stationary #ames and the other being personal space for pedestrians
integrating the paths ahead.
Results show that people walk faster when personal space is invaded, and walking speed and
direction are changed to a higher degree at high pedestrian $ow. %ese results show how
crowded situations require behavioral changes and offer an important insight into the
relationship of human walking behavior and personal space.

Keywords:personal space, walking behavior, pedestrians
Subjects:C Biological Sciences > C120 Behavioural Biology
L Social studies > L600 Anthropology
Divisions:College of Science > School of Life Sciences
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ID Code:14637
Deposited On:07 Aug 2014 16:55

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