The calcium-sensing receptor and β-cell function

Squires, Paul E. and Jones, Peter M. and Younis, Mustafa Y. G. and Hills, Claire E. (2014) The calcium-sensing receptor and β-cell function. Vitamins and Hormones, 95 . pp. 249-267. ISSN 0083-6729

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Abstract

In addition to its central role controlling systemic calcium homeostasis, the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) can be found on multiple cell types not associated with controlling plasma calcium. The endocrine pancreas is one such tissue, and it is apparent that the receptor plays an important role in regulating β-cell function. During exocytosis, divalent cations are coreleased with insulin and their concentration within the restricted intercellular compartments of the pancreatic islet increases sufficiently to activate the CaSR on neighboring cells. Acute and chronic activation of the receptor has multiple effects on the β-cell, from increasing cadherin-based cell–cell adhesion to directly altering the expression and function of various potassium and voltage-dependent calcium channels. The promiscuous activation of multiple binding partners improves cell adhesion, cell coupling, and cell-to-cell communication within the islet and is the basis for the effect of the CaSR on β-cell function and improved glucose responsiveness.

Additional Information:The pancreatic beta cell - chapter 10
Keywords:Calcium-sensing receptor, Pancreatic islets, Cell–cell contact, Insulin secretion, Proliferation, Diabetes, Beta cell function, bmjtype, NotOAChecked
Subjects:C Biological Sciences > C720 Biological Chemistry
Divisions:College of Science > School of Life Sciences
ID Code:14129
Deposited On:27 May 2014 09:52

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