Sistemática, taxonomía y domesticación de alpacas y llamas: nueva evidencia cromosómica y molecular (Systematics, taxonomy and domestication of alpaca and llama: new chromosomal and molecular evidence)

Marin, Juan C. and Zapata, Beatriz and Gonzalez, Benito A. and Bonacic, Cristian and Wheeler, Jane C. and Casey, Ciara and Bruford, Michael W. and Palma, R. Eduardo and Poulin, Elie and Alliende, M. Angelica and Spotorno, Ángel E. (2007) Sistemática, taxonomía y domesticación de alpacas y llamas: nueva evidencia cromosómica y molecular (Systematics, taxonomy and domestication of alpaca and llama: new chromosomal and molecular evidence). Revista chilena de historia natural, 80 (2). pp. 121-140. ISSN 0716-078x

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0716-078X2007000200001

Abstract

Four camelid species exist in South America: two wild, the guanaco (Lama guanicoe) and the vicuña (Vicugna vicugna), and two domestic, the alpaca (Lama pacos) and the llama (Lama glama). However, the origin of the domestic species has been a matter of debate. In the present study, variations in chromosome G banding patterns and in two mitochondrial gene sequences have been used to study the origin and classification of the llama and alpaca.-Similar patterns in chromosome G band structure were observed in all four Lamini species, and these in turn were similar to the bands described for camels, Camelus bactrianus. However, fine and consistent differences were found in the short arms of chromosome 1, separating camels, guanacos and llamas from vicuñas and alpacas. This pattern was consistent even in a hybrid guanaco x alpaca. Equivalent relationship showed the complete cytochrome b gene sequences, and the minimum expansion tree of the partial control region sequence, grouping guanaco with llama and vicuña with alpaca. Phylogenetic analyses showed V. vicugna and L. guanicoe as monophyletic groups. Analysis of both gene sequences revealed two clades within vicuña, concordant with the two described subspecies, but the results for guanaco did not confirm existence of the four previously proposed subspecies. The combined analysis of chromosomal and molecular variation showed close genetic similarity between alpacas and vicuñas, as well as between llamas and guanacos. Although directional hybridization was revealed, our results strongly support the hypothesis that the llama would have derived from L. guanicoe and the alpaca from V. vicugna, supporting reciassification as V. pacos.

Item Type:Article
Additional Information:Four camelid species exist in South America: two wild, the guanaco (Lama guanicoe) and the vicuña (Vicugna vicugna), and two domestic, the alpaca (Lama pacos) and the llama (Lama glama). However, the origin of the domestic species has been a matter of debate. In the present study, variations in chromosome G banding patterns and in two mitochondrial gene sequences have been used to study the origin and classification of the llama and alpaca.-Similar patterns in chromosome G band structure were observed in all four Lamini species, and these in turn were similar to the bands described for camels, Camelus bactrianus. However, fine and consistent differences were found in the short arms of chromosome 1, separating camels, guanacos and llamas from vicuñas and alpacas. This pattern was consistent even in a hybrid guanaco x alpaca. Equivalent relationship showed the complete cytochrome b gene sequences, and the minimum expansion tree of the partial control region sequence, grouping guanaco with llama and vicuña with alpaca. Phylogenetic analyses showed V. vicugna and L. guanicoe as monophyletic groups. Analysis of both gene sequences revealed two clades within vicuña, concordant with the two described subspecies, but the results for guanaco did not confirm existence of the four previously proposed subspecies. The combined analysis of chromosomal and molecular variation showed close genetic similarity between alpacas and vicuñas, as well as between llamas and guanacos. Although directional hybridization was revealed, our results strongly support the hypothesis that the llama would have derived from L. guanicoe and the alpaca from V. vicugna, supporting reciassification as V. pacos.
Keywords:d-loop., Cytochrome b, Vicugna pacos, Llama pacos, Llama glama, Camelidae
Subjects:C Biological Sciences > C400 Genetics
C Biological Sciences > C410 Applied Genetics
Divisions:College of Science > School of Life Sciences
ID Code:1241
Deposited By: Jill Partridge
Deposited On:27 Sep 2007
Last Modified:19 Feb 2013 11:39

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