Abnormal T regulatory cells (Tregs: FOXP3+, CTLA-4+), myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs: Monocytic, granulocytic) and polarised T helper cell profiles (Th1, Th2, Th17) in women with large and locally advanced breast cancers undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and surgery: failure of abolition of abnormal treg profile with treatment and correlation of treg levels with pathological response to NAC

Verma, C. and Eremin, J. M. and Robins, A. and Bennett, A. J. and Cowley, G. P. and El-Sheemy, M. A. and Jibril, J. A. and Eremin, O. (2013) Abnormal T regulatory cells (Tregs: FOXP3+, CTLA-4+), myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs: Monocytic, granulocytic) and polarised T helper cell profiles (Th1, Th2, Th17) in women with large and locally advanced breast cancers undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and surgery: failure of abolition of abnormal treg profile with treatment and correlation of treg levels with pathological response to NAC. Journal of Translational Medicine, 11 (1). p. 16. ISSN 1479-5876

Full content URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1479-5876-11-16

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Item Type:Article
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Abstract

Background: Host defences play a key role in tumour growth. Some of the benefits of chemotherapy may occur through modulation of these defences. The aim of this study was to define the status of regulatory cells in women with large and locally advanced breast cancers (LLABCs) undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and surgery. Methods: Bloods were collected from patients (n = 56) before, during and following NAC, and surgery. Controls (n = 10) were healthy, age-matched females donors (HFDs). Blood mononuclear cells (BMCs) were isolated and T regulatory cells (Tregs) (n = 31) determined. Absolute numbers (AbNs) of Tregs and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) were ascertained from whole blood (n = 25). Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis determined Treg mRNA (n = 16). In vitro production of Th1, Th2 and Th17 cytokines (n = 30), was documented. Patients were classified as clinical responders by magnetic resonance mammography after two cycles of NAC and as pathological responders using established criteria, following surgery. Results: Patients with LLABCs had significantly increased circulating Tregs (� 6 fold AbN and percentage ()) and MDSCs (� 1.5 fold AbN (p = 0.025)). Percentage of FOXP3+ Tregs in blood predicted the response of the LLABCs to subsequent NAC (p = 0.04). Post NAC blood Tregs () were significantly reduced in patients where tumours showed a good pathological response to NAC (p = 0.05). Blood MDSCs (granulocytic, monocytic) were significantly reduced in all patients, irrespective of the pathological tumour response to chemotherapy. NAC followed by surgery failed to restore blood Tregs to normal levels. MDSCs, however, were reduced to or below normal levels by NAC alone. Invitro Th1 profile (IL-1β, IL-2, INF-γ, TNF-α) was significantly reduced (p � 0.009), whilst Th2 (IL-4, IL-5) was significantly enhanced (P � 0.004). Th1 and Th2 (IL-5) were unaffected by NAC and surgery. IL-17A was significantly increased (p � 0.023) but unaffected by chemotherapy and surgery. Conclusion: Women with LLABCs have abnormal blood regulatory cell levels (Tregs and MDSCs) and cytokine profiles (Th1, Th2, Th17). NAC followed by surgery failed to abolish the abnormal Treg and Th profiles. There was a significant correlation between the circulatory levels of Tregs and the pathological response of the breast cancers to NAC. © 2013 Verma et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Keywords:capecitabine, cyclophosphamide, cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4, docetaxel, doxorubicin, gamma interferon, interleukin 17, interleukin 1beta, interleukin 2, interleukin 4, interleukin 5, messenger RNA, transcription factor FOXP3, tumor necrosis factor alpha, advanced cancer, article, breast cancer, cancer adjuvant therapy, cellular immunity, controlled study, CTLA 4 gene, cytokine production, drug response, female, FOXP3 gene, gene, gene expression, granulocyte, helper cell, histopathology, human, human cell, human tissue, immune dysregulation, in vitro study, innate immunity, major clinical study, mammography, mastectomy, monocyte, multiple cycle treatment, peripheral blood mononuclear cell, regulatory T lymphocyte, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, suppressor cell, Th1 cell, Th17 cell, Th2 cell, treatment outcome
Subjects:B Subjects allied to Medicine > B100 Anatomy, Physiology and Pathology
Divisions:College of Science > School of Life Sciences
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ID Code:11546
Deposited On:07 Jan 2014 16:16

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